English Words of (Unexpected) Greek Origin.

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Archive for February, 2010

Etymology of Basil.

Posted by Johannes on 7 February 2010

Origin of Basil.
The male proper name Basil is a transliteration of the Greek name Basilios, which derives from the word basileus (better pronounced as vasileus), which means king (βασιλεύς).

The etymology of basileus is controversial. Most probably it consists of two words: (a) bas- (base; from the verb veno (βαίνω): go, move ahead – from which also comes the latin verb venire-) and (b) leus (leos -λεώς-: people – from which also comes the English word leity). So basileus (king) literally means the one who is based on the people*.

Saint Basil the Great (330-379) was archibishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia and one of the fathers of the Christian church.

Icon of Saint Basil the Great.

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The name Basil was also borne by two Roman emperors, namely Basil I (867 -886) and Basil II (976-1025).
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Other forms of the name:
Basile, Basilic, Basilides, Basiliki (fem), Basileios, Basilie, Basilio, Basilius, Bazeel, Bazeelius, Bazil, Bazyli, Vasile, Vasileos, Vasili, Vasiliki (fem), Vasilije, Vasilios, Vasilis, Vasilius, Vasilus, Vasily, Vassilij, Vassily, Wassily.


From the same root:
English:
basil (the herb), basilica, basilic.
French:
Basile, basilique, basilic
Italian: Basilio, basilica, basilico
Spanish:
Basilio, basilica
German: Basilius, Basilika, Basilikum


In modern Greek (Romeika, the language of Romei/Romans/Ρωμηοί)
a) Basilios: Basil [Βασίλειος] …………………………………… (better pronounced as Vasilios)
b) basilia: reign, royalty, kingship [βασιλεία] …………. (vasilia)
c) basilio: kindom [βασίλειο] ……………………………… (vasilio)
d) basilevo: reign, rule (over) [βασιλεύω] ………………. (vasilevo)
e) basilias: king [βασιλιάς] ………………………………… (vasilias)
f) basilissa: queen [βασίλισσα] ……………………………. (vasilissa)
g) basilicos: basil (herb) [βασιλικός] ……………………… (vasilicos)

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Το όνομα Basil προέρχεται από το ελληνικό όνομα Βασίλειος, το οποίο με τη σειρά του προέρχεται από το βασιλεύς.

Post: 131.

*: some say that basileus literally means the one that leads the people.

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Etymology of month, moon, menses, meniscus

Posted by Johannes on 1 February 2010

Origin of month, moon, menses, meniscus.
The words moon and month come from the the latin mensis (month), which derives from the Greek Aeolic form meis/mens (μείς/μηνς) of men/mene (μήν/μήνη; month, moon).
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From the same root:

English: moon, moon- (-beam, -light, …, – strike), moony, month, menses, menstrual, menstruation, menstruate, menstruous, menopause, meniscus (deminutive of mene: small moon during the first quarter).

French: mois, mensuel

Italian: mese, mensile

Spanish: mes, mensual,

German: Monat, monatlich
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In modern Greek (Romeika, the language of Romei/Romans/Ρωμηοί)
a) menas: month [μήνας]

b) emmena: menses, period [έμμηνα]

c) emmenopause: menopause [εμμηνόπαυση]

d) emmenorrhoea: menstruation [εμμηνόρροια]

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Οι λέξεις moon (σελήνη) και month (μήνας) προέρχονται από το λατινικό mensis (μήνας), το οποίο με τη σειρά του προέρχεται από την Αιολική μορφή μείς/μηνς του μήν/μήνη (μήνας, σελήνη).

Post 130.

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In blogger: http://ewonago.blogspot.com/

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Etymology of hospital, host, hostel, hotel, hospice, hostile, hostage

Posted by Johannes on 1 February 2010

Origin of hospital, host, hostel, hotel, hospice, hostile, hostage.
The word hospital comes from the Latin hospitale (guest-house, inn) from hospes (stranger, guest) from the Greek Aeolic form espios of estios from the noun estia (home, house, family, fireplace; εστία). From estia comes the verb estiao (to receive/welcome somebody in my house; to prepare a meal for somebody, to offer hospitality; εστιάω)
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Note: Some etymologize hospes from the Greek verb aesko (I lie; αέσκω), from which comes the noun asty (home, city; άστυ). Aesko -> aespo -> hospes.
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From the same root
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English: hospital, host, hostel, hotel, hospice, hostile, hostage, hosterly
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French: hopital, hospice, hote, hotel, hostile, hostie, otage, ost
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Italian: ospedale, ospizio, ospite, oste, hotel, ostile, ostia
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Spanish: hospital, hospicio, huesped, hotel, hostil, hostia
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German: Hospital, Hospiz, Hostess, Hotel, Hostie, Geisel
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In modern Greek (Romeika, the language of Romei/Romans/Ρωμηοί)
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a) estia: home, house, family, fireplace, focus, centre [εστία]
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b) estiatorio: restaurant [εστιατόριο]
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c) spiti: house, home [σπίτι]
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Η λέξη hospital (νοσοκομείο) προέρχεται από το Λατινικό hospitale (ξενοδοχείο) από το hospes (ξένος, φιλοξενούμενος) από την Αιολική μορφή έσπιος του έστιος απο το ουσιαστικό εστία. Από τη λέξη εστία προέρχεται και το ρήμα εστιάω (“δέχομαι τινα εν τω οίκω μου, φιλοξενώ τινα”, παραθέτω γεύμα, φιλεύω).
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Post 129.
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