ENGLISH WORDS AND GREEK COGNATES.

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Archive for the ‘B’ Category

Etymology of beret

Posted by Johannes on 1 October 2011

Beret (cap; earlier, berret) is from the diminutive form birretum of the Latin birrus (large hooded cloak). It is either of Gaulish origin or it is related to the red colour [burrus: red] of the wool of which it was made. Burrus is related to the Greek word pyrros [Gr: πυρρός] meaning red, the colour of the fire, from pyr [Gr: πύρ], fire.


In modern Greek:
a) pyr: n. fire [Gr: πυρ]
b) pyrosvestis: fireman, fire fighter [Gr: πυροσβέστης]
c) pyrotechnima: firework, pyrotechnics [Gr: πυροτέχνημα]
d) pyrotechnurgos: pyrotechnist [Gr: πυροτεχνουργός]
e) pyromanis: pyromaniac [Gr: πυρομανής]
f) pyrolysi: pyrolysis [Gr: πυρόλυση]
g) pyrovolo: to shoot, fire, gun [Gr: πυροβολώ]
h) pyrkayia: n. fire, conflagration [Gr: πυρκαγιά]
i) beres: beret [Gr: μπερές]; loanworn

 

OED
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Etymology of brillinat

Posted by Johannes on 11 September 2011

Brilliant comes from the French brilliant (sparkling, shining) from the Italian brillare (sparkle, whirl), from the Latin berillare (to shine like a beryl), from berillus (beryl, precious stone), from the Latin beryllus, which is a transliteration of the Greek beryllos [beryl, precious stone; Gr: βήρυλλος].
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In modern Greek:
a) beryllos (or better pronounced as viryllos): beryl [Gr: βήρυλλος]
b) beryllio: beryllium (Be) [Gr: βηρύλλιο]
c) brilanti (or brigianti): diampond, brilliant [Gr: μπριλάντι]
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Fr: briller, brillantine, brillant; It: brillare; Grm: Brillant, Brille

OED
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Etymology of banjo

Posted by Johannes on 28 August 2011

Origin of the word banjo
The word banjo (a stringed instrument with four or five strings, usually associated with country music) comes from the Portoguese bandurra, from the Latin pandura, which is a transliteration of the Greek pandura (a three-string instrument; Gr: παντούρα).

From the same root:

mandolin, banjulele

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 In modern Greek:

a) banjo: banjo [Gr: μπάντζο; loanword]

b) mandolino: mandolin [Gr: μαντολίνο; loanword]

c) mandura: a folk music instrument [Gr: μαντούρα]

 

OED

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Etymology of box

Posted by Johannes on 7 May 2011

Origin of the word box
The word box (wooden container) comes from the Latin buxis/buxus, which is a transliteration of the Greek pyxis/pyxos [box (the tree); Gr.: πύξος].

In modern Greek:
a) pyxida: compass [Gr: πυξίδα]
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Etymology of Basil.

Posted by Johannes on 7 February 2010

Origin of Basil.
The male proper name Basil is a transliteration of the Greek name Basilios, which derives from the word basileus (better pronounced as vasileus), which means king (βασιλεύς).

The etymology of basileus is controversial. Most probably it consists of two words: (a) bas- (base; from the verb veno (βαίνω): go, move ahead) and (b) leus (leos -λεώς-: people – from which also comes the English word leity). So basileus (king) literally means the one who is based on the people*.

Saint Basil the Great (330-379) was archibishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia and one of the fathers of the Christian church.

Icon of Saint Basil the Great.

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The name Basil was also borne by two Roman emperors, namely Basil I (867 -886) and Basil II (976-1025).
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Other forms of the name:
Basile, Basilic, Basilides, Basiliki (fem), Basileios, Basilie, Basilio, Basilius, Bazeel, Bazeelius, Bazil, Bazyli, Vasile, Vasileos, Vasili, Vasiliki (fem), Vasilije, Vasilios, Vasilis, Vasilius, Vasilus, Vasily, Vassilij, Vassily, Wassily.


From the same root:
English:
basil (the herb), basilica, basilic.
French:
Basile, basilique, basilic
Italian: Basilio, basilica, basilico
Spanish:
Basilio, basilica
German: Basilius, Basilika, Basilikum


In modern Greek:
a) Basilios: Basil [Βασίλειος] …………………………………… (better pronounced as Vasilios)
b) basilia: reign, royalty, kingship [βασιλεία] …………. (vasilia)
c) basilio: kindom [βασίλειο] ……………………………… (vasilio)
d) basilevo: reign, rule (over) [βασιλεύω] ………………. (vasilevo)
e) basilias: king [βασιλιάς] ………………………………… (vasilias)
f) basilissa: queen [βασίλισσα] ……………………………. (vasilissa)
g) basilicos: basil (herb) [βασιλικός] ……………………… (vasilicos)

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Το όνομα Basil προέρχεται από το ελληνικό όνομα Βασίλειος, το οποίο με τη σειρά του προέρχεται από το βασιλεύς.

OED

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Etymology of Barbara

Posted by Johannes on 10 January 2010

Origin of Barbara.
The Christian proper name Barbara is given in honour of the Great Martyr Saint Barbara (3rd century – December 4, 306). Saint Barbara was a young woman killed by her own father Dioscorus, who was then killed by a bolt of lightning. The name comes from the Latin barbarus, which is merely a transliteration of the Greek barbaros (βάρβαρος) meaning foreign, one who could not speak Greek, a non-Greek, an uncivilized.
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Other forms of the proper name.
Barb, Barbie, Barbra, Babs, Bobbie, Barbora, Bairbre, Bara, Barbro, Basia, Borbala, Varvara, Varya.

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From the same root.

English: barbarian, barbarity, barbarism, barbarize, barbaric
French: barbare, barbarie, barbarisme, barbariser, barbaresques
Italian:barbaro, barbarie, barbarismo, barbarizzare
Spanish: barbaro, barbaridad, barbarismo, barbarico
German: Barbar, Barbarei, barbarisch, Barbarismus. 

 

In modern Greek:
a) Barbara (or better Varvara): Barbara [Βαρβάρα]
b)barbaros (or better varvaros): barbarian [βάρβαρος]
c) barbarismos (varvarismos): barbarism [βαρβαρισμός]
d) barbarotita (varvarotita): barbarity [βαρβαρότητα]
e) barbaricos (varvaricos): barbaric [βαρβαρικός]

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OED

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Το κύριο όνομα Barbara, προέρχεται από το Ελληνικό βάρβαρος
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Saint Barbara
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Etymology of borough, -burg, bourgeois, burglar

Posted by Johannes on 23 July 2009

Etymology of borough, -burg, bourgeois, burglar

The word borough and the widely used ending -burg derives from the Latin burgus (fortress, castle, fortified city), which is related to the Greek words pyrgos (burgus, fortress, castle; πύργος; see “Αίας πύργος Αχαιοίς”) and Pergamon (Πέργαμα Τροίας, Pergama Trias – citadel of  Troy).

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From the same root:
borough, -burg, -burgh, burglar, bourgeois, burgess, burgh, burgher

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In modern Greek:

  a) pyrgos: tower, castle, fortress [πύργος]
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 b) pyrgono: fortify [πυργώνω]
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c) Pergamos: the city of Pergamos (Bergama) in the Aegean coast of Asia Minor [Πέργαμος]

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Η λέξη borough (πόλη, δήμος) καθώς και η εκτενώς χρησιμοποιούμενη κατάληξη -burg προέρχεται από το λατινικό burgus (πύργος, κάστρο, οχυρωμένη πόλη), το οποία σχετίζονται με τά ελληνικά πύργος καί Πέργαμος.
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Etymology of topic

Posted by Johannes on 6 March 2009

Etymology of topic

Topic derives from the Latin topica, which is a tranliteration of the Greek topica (of a place, local, the name of a work by Aristotle; τοπικά) from topos (place, subject for conversation; τόπος)
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From the same root:
topical, utopia, topography
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In modern Greek
a) topicos: local, regional [τοπικός]
b) topos: place, country, position, locus [τόπος]
c) topio: landscape, seascape, scenery [τοπίο]
d) topografos: topographer [τοπογράφος]
e) topografia: topography [τοπογραφία]
f) topotheto: to place, to post, to position [topo (place) + theto (put)] [τοποθετώ]
g) utopia: utopia [ουτοπία]
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Η λέξη topic (θέμα συζήτησης) προέρχεται από το Λατινικό topica, απότο ελληνικό topica (τοπικά) από το τόπος.
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Etymology of bomb

Posted by Johannes on 23 November 2008

Etymology of bomb

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Bomb derives from the french bombe, from the latin bombus (a buzzing sound), from the greek bombos (βόμβος).

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From the same root.
bombard, bombardment, bombardon

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In modern Greek
a) bombos (or better vomvos): buzz, drone [βόμβος]
b) bomba (or vomva): bomb [βόμβα]
c) bombardizo (or vomvardizo): bomb, shell [βομβαρδίζω]
d) bombardismos (or vomvardismos): bombing, shelling [βομβαρδισμός]
e) bombardistiko (or vomvardistiko): bomber [βομβαρδιστικό]
f) bombetes (or vomvetes): buzzer [βομβητής]

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OED

Bomb προέρχεται από το γαλλικό bombe, από το Λατινικό bombus, από το ελληνικό βόμβος.

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Etymology of bishop

Posted by Johannes on 5 August 2008

Etymology of Bishop
The word BISHOP derives from the Latin episcopus (bishop; contraction of both the beginning and the end of the word), from the Greek επίσκοπος (episcopos; watcher, overseer), from επί- (epi-; over) + σκοπός (scopos; watcher) from the verb σκοπέω (scopeo; observe, see).
In modern Greek
α) Επίσκοπος: bishop [episcopos]
β) επισκόπηση: inspection, review [episcopisi]
γ) επισκοπή: bishopric [episcopi]
δ) επισκοπώ: review, inspect [episcopo]
ε) σκοπός: aim, goal, object, scope, watcher, guard [scopos]
στ) σκοπιά: observation/look-out post, watch-tower [scopia]
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Η λέξη BISHOP (επίσκοπος) προέρχεται από το λατινικό αντίστοιχο episcopus, από το ελληνικό επίσκοπος.
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