ENGLISH WORDS AND GREEK COGNATES.

Learn easily Greek via the linguistic relationships and the roots of the English words.

Posts Tagged ‘Spanish words from Greek’

Etymology of cup

Posted by Johannes on 24 May 2010

Origin of cup
Cup comes from the Latin cupa/cuppa (hollow, cup), which is related to the Greek cype (hollow, cup; κύπη).
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From the same root:
English: cupel
French: coupe, cuve, cuvette
Italian: coppa, coppella
Spanish: copa, cuba, copela
German: Kupe
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In modern Greek:
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a) cypello: cup [κύπελλο]
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b) cupa: cup [κούπα]
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Η λέξη cup (κύπελλο) προέρχεται από το Λατινικό cupa/cuppa (κοιλότητα, κύπελλο), το οποίο σχετίζεται με το Ελληνικό κύπη (κοιλότητα, γούβα, κύπελλο).
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Etymology of pants, pantaloons

Posted by Johannes on 24 May 2010

Origin of pants, pantaloons
Pants is a shortened form of pantaloons. Pantaloons (kind of tights, trousers) derives from the French pantalon from the name of Pantaleone a hero of comedia dell’arte (16th century), who used to wear such trousers. The name Pantaleon is Greek and means “always a lion, in all things like a lion” [Panta- (always, all things) + –leon (lion)].
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Saint Pantaleon (the name later changed to Panteleimon – always mercyful, all-mercuful-) was martyred under the reign of Emperor Maximian (ca. 305 A.D.). He was a physician, and he dedicated his life to the suffering, the sick, the unfortunate and the needy. He treated all those who turned to him without charge, healing them in the name of Jesus Christ. More: here.
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Saint Panteleimon

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From the same root:

French: pantalon

Italian: pantalone

Spanish: pantalon

Turkish: pantolon

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In modern Greek:

a) pantaloni: pantaloon (loan word from It. pantalone) [πανταλόνι]

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b) panta: all, always [πάντα]. See the same pan- (all) in many words such as: pandemic, pandemonium, panacea, panegyric, panoply, panorama, pantheon, pantomime etc.

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c) eleimon: mercyful [ελεήμων]

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d) eleos: mercy [έλεος]

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OED

Η λέξη pant αποτελεί συντόμευση του pantaloon (πανταλόνι). Προέρχεται από το Γαλλικό pantalon από το όνομα Πανταλέων (Pantaleone) ενός χαρακτήρα της comedia dell’arte (16ος αιώνας), ο οποίος στα έργα φορούσε τέτοια πανταλόνια.

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Etymology of lion

Posted by Johannes on 24 May 2010

Origin of lion
The word lion comes from the old French lion from the Latin leo (lion), which is a trasliteration of the Greek leon (gen. leontos; lion; λέων).
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From the same root:
English: lioncel, lioness, lion-hearted
French: lion
Italian: leone, leonessa
Spanish: leon
German: Löwe
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In modern Greek:
a) liontari: lion [λιοντάρι]
b) leena: lioness [λέαινα]
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Η λέξη lion (λιοντάρι) προέρχεται από το Λατινικό leo (λιοντάρι), το οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή του Ελληνικού λέων.
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Etymology of mill

Posted by Johannes on 28 March 2010

Origin of mill
The word mill comes from the Latin mola (mill, millstone), which is is related to the Greek myle (mill, millstone; μύλη).
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From the same root
English:
millstone, miller
French: meule, molette, meunier
Italian: mola, mugnaio
Spanish: muela, moleta, molinero
German: Muhlstein, Muller
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In modern Greek:
a) milos:
mill [μύλος]
b) milopetra:
millstone [milo (mill)+ petra (stone); μυλόπετρα]
c) milonas: miller [μυλωνάς]
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OED

 

Η λέξη mill (μύλος) προέρχεται από το Λατινικό mola (μύλος), το οποίο σχετίζεται με το Ελληνικό μύλη.
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meule (μύλος), molette (τροχίσκος), meunier (μυλωνάς)
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______________________________________ Post 138. ________________________
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Etymology of oval, ovary

Posted by Johannes on 1 March 2010

Origin of oval, ovary

The word oval comes from the Latin ovalis (egg-shaped, literally of or pertaining to an egg) from ovum (egg), which is related to the Greek Aeolic form oFon (egg; ωFόν) of oon (egg; ωόν ).
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In modern Greek:

a) ootheque: ovary (oo-theque: lit. collection/library of eggs) [ωοθήκη]

b) oario: ovum [ωάριο]

c) ooides: ovoid, egg-shaped, oval [ωοειδές]
{Gr. ooides –> L. ovoides –> En. ovoid}

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OED
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From the same root:
ova, ovarian, ovate, ovoid, ovule, ovum
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Η λέξη oval προέρχεται από το λατινικό ovalis (ωοειδής), από το ovum (αβγό), το οποίο σχετίζεται με την Αιολική μορφή ωFόν του Ωόν (αβγό).
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Etymology of trophy, trope

Posted by Johannes on 1 March 2010

Origin of trophy, trope
The word trophy (a prize of war) comes from the Latin trophæum (a sign of victory), originally tropæum, which is a transliteration of the Greek tropaion (monument of an enemy’s defeat) from neut. of adj. tropaios (of defeat) from trope (a rout) originally “a turning” (of the enemy).

 
In modern Greek:

 a) tropeo: trophy [τρόπαιο]

b) trope: change, turn [τροπή]
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From the same root:
English: trope
French: trophee, trope, tropologie
Italian: trofeo, tropo, tropologia
Spanish: trofeo, tropo, tropologia
German: Trophae, Trope
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OED
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Η λέξη trophy (τρόπαιο) προέρχεται από το Λατινικό trophæum (αρχικά tropæum), το οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή του Ελληνικού τρόπαιον.
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Post 132.
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Etymology of Basil.

Posted by Johannes on 7 February 2010

Origin of Basil.
The male proper name Basil is a transliteration of the Greek name Basilios, which derives from the word basileus (better pronounced as vasileus), which means king (βασιλεύς).

The etymology of basileus is controversial. Most probably it consists of two words: (a) bas- (base; from the verb veno (βαίνω): go, move ahead) and (b) leus (leos -λεώς-: people – from which also comes the English word leity). So basileus (king) literally means the one who is based on the people*.

Saint Basil the Great (330-379) was archibishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia and one of the fathers of the Christian church.

Icon of Saint Basil the Great.

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The name Basil was also borne by two Roman emperors, namely Basil I (867 -886) and Basil II (976-1025).
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Other forms of the name:
Basile, Basilic, Basilides, Basiliki (fem), Basileios, Basilie, Basilio, Basilius, Bazeel, Bazeelius, Bazil, Bazyli, Vasile, Vasileos, Vasili, Vasiliki (fem), Vasilije, Vasilios, Vasilis, Vasilius, Vasilus, Vasily, Vassilij, Vassily, Wassily.


From the same root:
English:
basil (the herb), basilica, basilic.
French:
Basile, basilique, basilic
Italian: Basilio, basilica, basilico
Spanish:
Basilio, basilica
German: Basilius, Basilika, Basilikum


In modern Greek:
a) Basilios: Basil [Βασίλειος] …………………………………… (better pronounced as Vasilios)
b) basilia: reign, royalty, kingship [βασιλεία] …………. (vasilia)
c) basilio: kindom [βασίλειο] ……………………………… (vasilio)
d) basilevo: reign, rule (over) [βασιλεύω] ………………. (vasilevo)
e) basilias: king [βασιλιάς] ………………………………… (vasilias)
f) basilissa: queen [βασίλισσα] ……………………………. (vasilissa)
g) basilicos: basil (herb) [βασιλικός] ……………………… (vasilicos)

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Το όνομα Basil προέρχεται από το ελληνικό όνομα Βασίλειος, το οποίο με τη σειρά του προέρχεται από το βασιλεύς.

OED

____________________________________ Post: 131. ___________________

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Etymology of month, moon, menses, meniscus

Posted by Johannes on 1 February 2010

Origin of month, moon, menses, meniscus.
The words moon and month come from the the latin mensis (month), which is related to the Greek Aeolic form meis/mens (μείς/μηνς) of men/mene (μήν/μήνη; month, moon).
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From the same root:

English: moon, moon- (-beam, -light, …, – strike), moony, month, menses, menstrual, menstruation, menstruate, menstruous, menopause, meniscus (deminutive of mene: small moon during the first quarter).

French: mois, mensuel

Italian: mese, mensile

Spanish: mes, mensual,

German: Monat, monatlich
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In modern Greek:
a) menas: month [μήνας]

b) emmena: menses, period [έμμηνα]

c) emmenopause: menopause [εμμηνόπαυση]

d) emmenorrhoea: menstruation [εμμηνόρροια]

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Οι λέξεις moon (σελήνη) και month (μήνας) προέρχονται από το λατινικό mensis (μήνας), το οποίο σχετίζεται με το Ελληνικό μήν/μήνη (μήνας, σελήνη).

OED

_________________________ Post 130. _________________

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Etymology of cheer.

Posted by Johannes on 10 January 2010

Origin of cheer.
The word cheer (gladness, gaiety, something that gives joy, lightness of spirits or mood) comes from the Anglo-Norman chere (face) from the old French chiere from the Latin cara (face), which is merely a transliteration of the Greek cara (head; κάρα).

From the same root.
cheerful, cheerily, cheeriness, cheeriness, cheerio, cheerleader, cheerless, cheers, cheery

In modern Greek:
a) cara: head, a saint’s head, skull [κάρα]
b) carivaria:
headache [καρηβαρία]

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Η λέξη cheer (ευθυμία, κέφι, φαιδρότητα, επευφημία) προέρχεται από το Αγγλο-Νορμανδικό chere (πρόσωπο) από το παλαιό Γαλλικό chiere από το Λατινικό cara (πρόσωπο), το οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή του ελληνικού κάρα (κεφαλή).

OED

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Etymology of Barbara

Posted by Johannes on 10 January 2010

Origin of Barbara.
The Christian proper name Barbara is given in honour of the Great Martyr Saint Barbara (3rd century – December 4, 306). Saint Barbara was a young woman killed by her own father Dioscorus, who was then killed by a bolt of lightning. The name comes from the Latin barbarus, which is merely a transliteration of the Greek barbaros (βάρβαρος) meaning foreign, one who could not speak Greek, a non-Greek, an uncivilized.
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Other forms of the proper name.
Barb, Barbie, Barbra, Babs, Bobbie, Barbora, Bairbre, Bara, Barbro, Basia, Borbala, Varvara, Varya.

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From the same root.

English: barbarian, barbarity, barbarism, barbarize, barbaric
French: barbare, barbarie, barbarisme, barbariser, barbaresques
Italian:barbaro, barbarie, barbarismo, barbarizzare
Spanish: barbaro, barbaridad, barbarismo, barbarico
German: Barbar, Barbarei, barbarisch, Barbarismus. 

 

In modern Greek:
a) Barbara (or better Varvara): Barbara [Βαρβάρα]
b)barbaros (or better varvaros): barbarian [βάρβαρος]
c) barbarismos (varvarismos): barbarism [βαρβαρισμός]
d) barbarotita (varvarotita): barbarity [βαρβαρότητα]
e) barbaricos (varvaricos): barbaric [βαρβαρικός]

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OED

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Το κύριο όνομα Barbara, προέρχεται από το Ελληνικό βάρβαρος
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Saint Barbara
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