English Words of (Unexpected) Greek Origin.

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Posts Tagged ‘cognates’

Etymology of cup

Posted by Johannes on 24 May 2010

Origin of cup
Cup comes from the Latin cupa/cuppa (hollow, cup), which derives from the Greek cype (hollow, cup; κύπη).
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From the same root:
English: cupel
French: coupe, cuve, cuvette
Italian: coppa, coppella
Spanish: copa, cuba, copela
German: Kupe
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In modern Greek (Romeika, the language of Romei/Romans/Ρωμηοί).
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Η λέξη cup (κύπελλο) προέρχεται από το Λατινικό cupa/cuppa (κοιλότητα, κύπελλο), το οποίο προέρχεται από το Ελληνικό κύπη (κοιλότητα, γούβα, κύπελλο).

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Etymology of pants, pantaloons

Posted by Johannes on 24 May 2010

Origin of pants, pantaloons
Pants is a shortened form of pantaloons. Pantaloons (kind of tights, trousers) derives from the French pantalon from the name of Pantaleone a hero of comedia dell’arte (16th century), who used to wear such trousers. The name Pantaleon is Greek and means “always a lion, in all things like a lion” [Panta- (always, all things) + –leon (lion)].
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Saint Pantaleon (the name later changed to Panteleimon – always mercyful, all-mercuful-) was martyred under the reign of Emperor Maximian (ca. 305 A.D.). He was a physician, and he dedicated his life to the suffering, the sick, the unfortunate and the needy. He treated all those who turned to him without charge, healing them in the name of Jesus Christ. More: here.
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Saint Panteleimon

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From the same root:

French: pantalon

Italian: pantalone

Spanish: pantalon

Turkish: pantolon

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In modern Greek (Romeika, the language of Romei/Romans/Ρωμηοί)
 (https://ewonago.wordpress.com/2010/03/22/the-term-romei-romans-%cf%81%cf%89%ce%bc%ce%b7%ce%bf%ce%af-short-historical-synopsis/.

a) pantaloni: pantaloon (loan word from It. pantalone) [πανταλόνι]

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b) panta: all, always [πάντα]. See the same pan- (all) in many words such as: pandemic, pandemonium, panacea, panegyric, panoply, panorama, pantheon, pantomime etc.

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c) eleimon: mercyful [ελεήμων]

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d) eleos: mercy [έλεος]

 

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Η λέξη pant αποτελεί συντόμευση του pantaloon (πανταλόνι). Προέρχεται από το Γαλλικό pantalon από το όνομα Πανταλέων (Pantaleone) ενός χαρακτήρα της comedia dell’arte (16ος αιώνας), ο οποίος στα έργα φορούσε τέτοια πανταλόνια.

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Post 141.

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Etymology of lion

Posted by Johannes on 24 May 2010

Origin of lion
The word lion comes from the old French lion from the Latin leo (lion), which is a trasliteration of the Greek leon (gen. leontos; lion; λέων).
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From the same root:
English: lioncel, lioness, lion-hearted
French: lion
Italian: leone, leonessa
Spanish: leon
German: Löwe
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In Romeika (modern Greek, the language of Romei/Romans/Ρωμηοί)
a) liontari: lion [λιοντάρι]
b) leena: lioness [λέαινα]
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Η λέξη lion (λιοντάρι) προέρχεται από το Λατινικό leo (λιοντάρι), το οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή του Ελληνικού λέων.
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Post 140.
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Etymology of mill

Posted by Johannes on 28 March 2010

Origin of mill
The word mill comes from the Latin mola (mill, millstone), which is a transliteration of the Greek myle (mill, millstone; μύλη).
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From the same root
English:
millstone, miller
French: meule, molette, meunier
Italian: mola, mugnaio
Spanish: muela, moleta, molinero
German: Muhlstein, Muller
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In Romeika (modern Greek, the language of Romei/Romans/Ρωμηοί)
a) milos:
mill [μύλος]
b) milopetra:
millstone [milo (mill)+ petra (stone); μυλόπετρα]
c) milonas: miller [μυλωνάς]
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Η λέξη mill (μύλος) προέρχεται από το Λατινικό mola (μύλος), το οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή του Ελληνικού μύλη.
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meule (μύλος), molette (τροχίσκος), meunier (μυλωνάς)
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Etymology of oval, ovary

Posted by Johannes on 1 March 2010

Origin of oval, ovary

The word oval comes from the Latin ovalis (egg-shaped, literally of or pertaining to an egg) from ovum (egg), which derives from the Greek Aeolic form oFon (egg; ωFόν) of oon (egg; ωόν ).
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In modern Greek (Romeika, the language of Romei/Romans/Ρωμηοί)

a) ootheque: ovary (oo-theque: lit. collection/library of eggs) [ωοθήκη]

b) oario: ovum [ωάριο]

c) ooides: ovoid, egg-shaped, oval [ωοειδές]
{Gr. ooides –> L. ovoides –> En. ovoid}

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From the same root:
ova, ovarian, ovate, ovoid, ovule, ovum
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Η λέξη oval προέρχεται από το λατινικό ovalis (ωοειδής), από το ovum (αβγό), το οποίο προέρχεται από την Αιολική μορφή ωFόν του Ωόν (αβγό).

 

Post 134.

 


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Etymology of fart

Posted by Johannes on 1 March 2010

Origin of fart
The word fart (a flatus expelled through the anus) comes from the Old English verb fert-en, which derives from the ancient Greek verb perd-ome (fart).

In modern Greek (Romeika, the language of Romei/Romans/Ρωμηοί)
a) perdome: fart (v) [πέρδομαι]
b) porde: fart (n) [πορδή]

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Η λέξη fart (πέρδομαι) προέρχεται από το ελληνικό ρήμα πέρδομαι.

Post 133.

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Posted by Johannes on 11 April 2009

Etymology of roof.
Roof
derives from the ancient Greek word orofi (roof; οροφή) from the verb erefo (to cover; to cover with a roof; ερέφω / ερέπτω).

From the same root
roof-garden, roofing, roofless

Possibly: Rib and the German Ribbe

In modern Greek.
a) orofi:
roof, ceiling [οροφή]
b) orofos: floor, storey [όροφος]
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Η λέξη Roof (οροφή) προέρχεται από την αρχαία ελληνική λέξη οροφή, από το ρήμα ερέφω / ερέπτω (καλύπτω, στεγάζω, σκεπάζω, στεφανώνω).

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Post 86

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Comments by Asdings:
Asdings:
Dear Colleague, I’m afraid this is a false etymology. If ‘roof’ derived from Greek ‘orophe:’ (Modern Greek ‘orofi’), how do you explain the fact that the English dropped the initial vowel? This is not a common behaviour of English phonology.

Neither is ‘roof’ an Indoeuropean cognate of Gk. ‘orophe:’, for Germanic f should then correspond to a Greek p (cf. Gk. pate:r, En. father, Gk. pu:r, En. fire etc.).

It is more than certain that English ‘roof’ has no relation whatsoever with Greek ‘orophe:/orofi’.

Just check http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=roof, where we read the following:

O.E. hrof “roof, ceiling, top,” from P.Gmc. *khrofaz (cf. O.Fris. rhoof “roof,” M.Du. roof “cover, roof,” Du. roef “deckhouse, cabin, coffin-lid,” M.H.G. rof “penthouse,” O.N. hrof “boat shed”). No apparent connections outside Gmc. “English alone has retained the word in a general sense, for which the other languages use forms corresponding to OE. þæc thatch” [OED]. The verb is from c.1475. Roof of the mouth is from late O.E. Raise the roof “create an uproar” is attested from 1860, originally in Southern Amer.Eng. Roofer “one who makes or repairs roofs” is from 1855.

This information is absolutely convincing from the linguist’s point of view, be sure 😉

John Neos:
So, you think there is no connection between the verb erepto (Greek p to Germanic f ??) and roof. Then, how can someone explain that the meaning of the terms is identical? Is it merely a coincidence?

Asdings:
Even if we accepted that the p seen in erepto:was original (I mean, if it was not derived from Gk. ph+j, i.e. *erephjo > erepto1), the word roof would be just a cognate of Gk. erepto:; in no case would it be a loan from Greek. Still I insist that p is not original in erepto:, as witnessed by its obvious cognates with -ph- (which would be equivalent to Germanic b).

On the other hand, the semantic aspect is of no importance at all, since many superficially similar words have identical meaning in several, even unrelated, languages, cf. Malay mata, Greek mati, both denoting an ‘eye’. However, in the Malay word the root is -ta (ma- is an affix), while in the Greek word the root is *oqw- > *op- (> *op-ma > omma > ommation > ommatin > mati).

Do you see the point?

And the last and most convincing argument is that OE shows the form hrof. The initial Germanic h should correspond to a Greek k (cf. English horn, Gk. keras, L. cornu or English row < hro-, Gk. kruos, krustallos L. cruor, crudus etc.)1

An original -j- following a labial consonant is regularly turned into -t- in Greek, cf. *kop-j-o: > kopto: (= I cut).

P.S. I checked http://ewonago.blogspot.com and I observed that the majority of “English” words of “no apparent Greek” origin mentioned there are mere cognates between Latin and Greek. Please, do not confuse a cognate with a loan/derivative and their ilk. This is an error made by those not acquainted with linguistic rules and patterns. Of course there are English words of Greek origin, but they entered English mostly through Latin. But there are many more Latin-derived or ‘true’ English (Germanic) words similar to Greek ones just because of the common origin of Greek, English, Latin etc

John Neos:
Asdings, thank you very much for your reply and the time you spent on it. With your permission, I might transfer your comments in my blog.

Asdings:
It’s me who has to say “thanks” to you for giving credence to what I try to explain in the forum. You may transfer my comments to your blog PROVIDED THAT your visitors are REALLY interested in scientific research rather than in making Greek out of anything! By the way, I had a look at your section “Greek Words of Apparent Greek Origins” and I found it absolutely correct! I suggest you keep dealing mostly with such words, about which no doubt could be raised. The other two sections contain many errors. However, your blog is a useful source and I congratulate you for your zeal in promoting Greek language and culture. But do remember the following: Misleading information harms ‘Romiosyni’ rather than helps it 😉 The impact of Greek on other languages and cultures is so vast, that you can suffice yourself with true influences. Do not make use of old sources (as those scanned in your blog); views have since changed a lot.

http://www.translatum.gr/forum/index.php/topic,40370.0.html

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Etymology of pirate

Posted by Johannes on 18 February 2009

Etymology of pirate

Pirate derives from the Latin pirata (-ae; pirate), which is a transliteration of the Greek piratis (pirate; πειρατής) from the verb pirao (make an attempt, try, test, get experience, endeavour, attack; πειράω).

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From the same root:
piracy, piratical, experience, expert, empiric.

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In modern Greek

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a) piratis: pirate [πειρατής]

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b) piratia: piracy [πειρατία]

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c) pira: experience, practice [πείρα]

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d) pirama: experiment [πείραμα]
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e) empiria: experience, practice [εμπειρία]

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f) empiricos: empiric [εμπειρικός]
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g) piragma: teasing [πείραγμα]

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h) pirazo: tease, give trouble [πειράζω]

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Η λέξη pirate (πειρατής) προέρχεται απο το Λατινικός pirata (-ae), το ,οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή του Ελληνικού πειρατής από το ρήμα πειράω (αποπειρούμαι, δοκιμάζω, επιχειρώ).

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Post 76

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pirao –> piratis –> pirata –> pirate

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Etymology of ferocity – ferocious

Posted by Johannes on 18 February 2009

Etymology of ferocity
Ferocity
derives from the Latin ferocis, from fera/ferus (wild, savage), which is a transliteration of the Greek Aeolic form feros (φηρός) of theros (gen. of ther; wild animal, beast; θήρ)
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From the same root:
ferocious, ferociously, ferociousness, fierce, fierceness, fiercely

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In modern Greek

a) therio: wild beast [θηρίο]

b) theriodes: ferocious, savage [θηριώδης]

c) theriodia: ferocity, fierceness, atrocity [θηριωδία]

d) therama: prey [θήραμα]

Η λέξη ferocity (θηριωδία, αγριότητα) προέρχεται από το Λατινικό ferocis, από το fera/ferus (άγριος, θηριώδης), το οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή της Αιολικής μορφής φηρός του θηρός (γεν. του θήρ -θηρίο-)

Post 75.

 

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