ENGLISH WORDS AND GREEK COGNATES.

Learn easily Greek via the linguistic relationships and the roots of the English words.

Posts Tagged ‘ετυμολογία αγγλικών λέξεων’

Etymology of Basil.

Posted by Johannes on 7 February 2010

Origin of Basil.
The male proper name Basil is a transliteration of the Greek name Basilios, which derives from the word basileus (better pronounced as vasileus), which means king (βασιλεύς).

The etymology of basileus is controversial. Most probably it consists of two words: (a) bas- (base; from the verb veno (βαίνω): go, move ahead) and (b) leus (leos -λεώς-: people – from which also comes the English word leity). So basileus (king) literally means the one who is based on the people*.

Saint Basil the Great (330-379) was archibishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia and one of the fathers of the Christian church.

Icon of Saint Basil the Great.

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The name Basil was also borne by two Roman emperors, namely Basil I (867 -886) and Basil II (976-1025).
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Other forms of the name:
Basile, Basilic, Basilides, Basiliki (fem), Basileios, Basilie, Basilio, Basilius, Bazeel, Bazeelius, Bazil, Bazyli, Vasile, Vasileos, Vasili, Vasiliki (fem), Vasilije, Vasilios, Vasilis, Vasilius, Vasilus, Vasily, Vassilij, Vassily, Wassily.


From the same root:
English:
basil (the herb), basilica, basilic.
French:
Basile, basilique, basilic
Italian: Basilio, basilica, basilico
Spanish:
Basilio, basilica
German: Basilius, Basilika, Basilikum


In modern Greek:
a) Basilios: Basil [Βασίλειος] …………………………………… (better pronounced as Vasilios)
b) basilia: reign, royalty, kingship [βασιλεία] …………. (vasilia)
c) basilio: kindom [βασίλειο] ……………………………… (vasilio)
d) basilevo: reign, rule (over) [βασιλεύω] ………………. (vasilevo)
e) basilias: king [βασιλιάς] ………………………………… (vasilias)
f) basilissa: queen [βασίλισσα] ……………………………. (vasilissa)
g) basilicos: basil (herb) [βασιλικός] ……………………… (vasilicos)

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Το όνομα Basil προέρχεται από το ελληνικό όνομα Βασίλειος, το οποίο με τη σειρά του προέρχεται από το βασιλεύς.

OED

____________________________________ Post: 131. ___________________

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Etymology of month, moon, menses, meniscus

Posted by Johannes on 1 February 2010

Origin of month, moon, menses, meniscus.
The words moon and month come from the the latin mensis (month), which is related to the Greek Aeolic form meis/mens (μείς/μηνς) of men/mene (μήν/μήνη; month, moon).
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From the same root:

English: moon, moon- (-beam, -light, …, – strike), moony, month, menses, menstrual, menstruation, menstruate, menstruous, menopause, meniscus (deminutive of mene: small moon during the first quarter).

French: mois, mensuel

Italian: mese, mensile

Spanish: mes, mensual,

German: Monat, monatlich
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In modern Greek:
a) menas: month [μήνας]

b) emmena: menses, period [έμμηνα]

c) emmenopause: menopause [εμμηνόπαυση]

d) emmenorrhoea: menstruation [εμμηνόρροια]

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Οι λέξεις moon (σελήνη) και month (μήνας) προέρχονται από το λατινικό mensis (μήνας), το οποίο σχετίζεται με το Ελληνικό μήν/μήνη (μήνας, σελήνη).

OED

_________________________ Post 130. _________________

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Etymology of cheer.

Posted by Johannes on 10 January 2010

Origin of cheer.
The word cheer (gladness, gaiety, something that gives joy, lightness of spirits or mood) comes from the Anglo-Norman chere (face) from the old French chiere from the Latin cara (face), which is merely a transliteration of the Greek cara (head; κάρα).

From the same root.
cheerful, cheerily, cheeriness, cheeriness, cheerio, cheerleader, cheerless, cheers, cheery

In modern Greek:
a) cara: head, a saint’s head, skull [κάρα]
b) carivaria:
headache [καρηβαρία]

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Η λέξη cheer (ευθυμία, κέφι, φαιδρότητα, επευφημία) προέρχεται από το Αγγλο-Νορμανδικό chere (πρόσωπο) από το παλαιό Γαλλικό chiere από το Λατινικό cara (πρόσωπο), το οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή του ελληνικού κάρα (κεφαλή).

OED

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Etymology of Barbara

Posted by Johannes on 10 January 2010

Origin of Barbara.
The Christian proper name Barbara is given in honour of the Great Martyr Saint Barbara (3rd century – December 4, 306). Saint Barbara was a young woman killed by her own father Dioscorus, who was then killed by a bolt of lightning. The name comes from the Latin barbarus, which is merely a transliteration of the Greek barbaros (βάρβαρος) meaning foreign, one who could not speak Greek, a non-Greek, an uncivilized.
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Other forms of the proper name.
Barb, Barbie, Barbra, Babs, Bobbie, Barbora, Bairbre, Bara, Barbro, Basia, Borbala, Varvara, Varya.

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From the same root.

English: barbarian, barbarity, barbarism, barbarize, barbaric
French: barbare, barbarie, barbarisme, barbariser, barbaresques
Italian:barbaro, barbarie, barbarismo, barbarizzare
Spanish: barbaro, barbaridad, barbarismo, barbarico
German: Barbar, Barbarei, barbarisch, Barbarismus. 

 

In modern Greek:
a) Barbara (or better Varvara): Barbara [Βαρβάρα]
b)barbaros (or better varvaros): barbarian [βάρβαρος]
c) barbarismos (varvarismos): barbarism [βαρβαρισμός]
d) barbarotita (varvarotita): barbarity [βαρβαρότητα]
e) barbaricos (varvaricos): barbaric [βαρβαρικός]

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OED

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Το κύριο όνομα Barbara, προέρχεται από το Ελληνικό βάρβαρος
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Saint Barbara
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Etymology of glamour

Posted by Johannes on 27 December 2009

Origin of glamour
The word glamour (magic charm, alluring beauty or charm, a spell affecting the eye, a kind of haze in the air) comes from the Scottish term gramarye (magic, enchantment, spell), an alteration of the English word grammar (any sort of scholarship) from the latin grammatica, which is a transliteration of the Greek word grammatice (grammar; γραμματική).

 

From the same root.
glamorize, glamorous, grammar, grammatical, grammatic



In modern Greek:
a) gramma:
letter [γράμμα]
b) grammateas: secretary [γραμματέας]
c) grammatia:
secretariat [γραμματεία]
d) grammatici: grammar [γραμματική]
e) grammaticos:
grammatical [γραμματικός]
f) grammatio: note, bill, bond [γραμμάτιο]
g) grammatocivotio: letter-box [γραμματοκιβώτιο]
h) grammatosimo: stamp [γραμματόσημο]

 

OED

Note: Others etymologize the Scottish gramarye from the Greek grammarion (gram; weight unit; γραμμάριο).

Η λέξη glamour (γοητεία, θέλγητρο, σαγήνη, γόητρο, λάμψη) προέρχεται από το λατινικό grammatica, το οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή του ελληνικού γραμματική.

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Etymology of Aretha

Posted by Johannes on 27 December 2009

Origin of Aretha
The female proper name Aretha derives from the Greek name Arete (Αρετή) meaning “virtue, excellence”.

In modern Greek:
a) arete and Arete (as a female proper name): virtue [Αρετή]

Το όνομα Aretha προέρχεται από το Ελληνικό όνομα Αρετή.

BTN

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Etymology of Ambrose

Posted by Johannes on 27 December 2009

Origin of Ambrose
The masculine proper noun Ambrose comes from the Late Latin name Ambrosius (e.g. Saint Ambrosius – 4th century), which is a transliteration of the Greek name Ambrosios (Αμβρόσιος) meaning “immortal” (A+brotos).

From the same root:
Ambrosine, ambrosia, ambrosian

In modern Greek:
a) ambrosia or better amvrosia: ambrosia [αμβροσία]
b) Ambrosios (Amvrosios): Ambrose [Αμβρόσιος]

 

OED
Το όνομα Ambrose προέρχεται από το Ελληνικό Αμβρόσιος (αθάνατος, α + βροτός).

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Etymology of comb

Posted by Johannes on 25 October 2009

Origin of comb
The word comb (toothed implement for straightening the hair) comes from the old Germanic kamb, which is related to the ancient greek word gomfos (big sphenoid nail used in shipbuilding; γόμφος)

In modern Greek:
a) gomfios:
molar, grinter (γομφίος)


Η λέξη comb (χτένα) σχετίζεται με την αρχαία ελληνική λέξη γομφός (μεγάλου μεγέθους σφηνοειδές καρφί από μέταλλο ή ξύλο κατάλληλο για τη ναυπήγηση πλοίων, κάθε είδος συνδέσεως). Από την ίδια ρίζα προέρχεται ο γομφίος.

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Etymology of election and elect, select, collect, neglect

Posted by Johannes on 29 September 2009

Origin of election and elect, select, collect, neglect
The word election (e-lec-tion) is directly derived from the Latin verb eligere (to choose, select, etc) from the root word leg- (to gather, to collect, to choose, to pick out etc), which is related to the Greek verb lego (to collect, to choose, to say etc) and the prefix ex-, which is related to the Greek prefix ek- (out of, from).

 

From the same root.

English:
neglect, collect, sellect, lecture, lecturer, lector, elective, elector, electorate, elective, eligible. elite, elegance

French: elire, electeur, electoral, election, electif, eligible, elite, elegance

Italian: eleggere, elettore, elettorable, elettorato, elettivo, eletta, eleganza

Spanish: elegir, elector, electorado, eleccion, elegible, elegancia

German: Elite, elegant, Eleganz
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In modern Greek:
a) eklego:
elect [εκλέγω]
b) syllego:
collect [συλλέγω]
c) epilego: select [επιλέγω]
d) ekloges:
elections [εκλογές]
e) elit:
elite [ελίτ]
f) eklectos:
the elect, the elite [εκλεκτος]
g) ekleximos: eligible [εκλέξιμος]
h) eklektoras: elector [εκλέκτορας]
i) lectoras: lecturer [λέκτορας]
and many others
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OED

Η λέξη election (εκλογή) προέρχεται από το λατινικό eligere (επιλέγω, συλλέγω), το οποίο σχετίζεται με το ελληνικό εκλέγω.

 

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Etymology of tomb

Posted by Johannes on 29 September 2009

Origin of tomb
Tomb comes from the latin tomba, which derives from the Greek tymbos (tomb, tumulus, grave; τύμβος)

 

From the same root
English: tump
French: tombe, tombal, tombeau, tomber
Italic: tomba, tombare, tombola
Spanish: tumba, tumbal, tumbo, tumbar, tumbado
German: Tumba

In modern Greek:
a) tymbos (or better tymvos): tomb [τύμβος]

OED

Η λέξη tomb (τάφος, μνήμα) προέρχεται από το λατινικό tomba (τάφος, τύμβος), το οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή του ελληνικού τύμβος.

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