ENGLISH WORDS AND GREEK COGNATES.

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Archive for the ‘T’ Category

Etymology of tardy, retardation

Posted by Johannes on 22 December 2012

The adj. tardy comes from the Latin tardus (slow, dull, stupid), which some relate it to the Greek vradys/vradus (slow; Gr: βραδύς; vradus/vardus/tardus].

Others relate it to the Latin taru-dos from the v. teru-, from the Greek terys/terus [thin, weak, wιthout power; Gr: τέρυς]

From the same root: tardiness, tardily, retard, retardation, brady- (bradycardia, bradypnea, bradykinesia etc).

In modern Greek:
a) vradys (bradys): slow [Gr: βραδύς]

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Etymology of tarragon, estragon (Fr)

Posted by Johannes on 22 December 2012

Tarragon (estragon) is a plant whose aromatic leaves are used for flavoring. The word comes from the Byzantine* Greek tarchon. from the Arabictarhun, from the Greek drakontion (dragonwort), from the Greek drakon(dragon, snake).


French: estragon
Spanish: taragona
Italian: targone
Greek: estrago[Gr: εστραγκόν; loanword, reborrowing]

 

OED

* The term Byzantine Empire is falsely used by some to describe the Roman Empire from the 4th to 15th century.

 Post 226.

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Etymology of triumph

Posted by Johannes on 10 December 2011

Triumph comes from the old French triumphe from the Latin triumphus (achievement, a success, procession for a victorious general or admiral), which merely is a transliteration of the Greek thriambos.

In modern Greek:
a) thriamvos: triumph [Gr: θρίαμβος]

OED

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Etymology of typhoon

Posted by Johannes on 30 August 2011

The word typhoon (violent storm, whirlwind, tornado), comes from the Greek typhon [whirlwind; Gr: τυφών], personified as a giant, father of the winds, perhaps from typhein “to smoke” (origin of the word typhus).
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In modern Greek:

a) typhonas: typhoon [Gr: τυφώνας]

OED

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Etymology of trophy, trope

Posted by Johannes on 1 March 2010

Origin of trophy, trope
The word trophy (a prize of war) comes from the Latin trophæum (a sign of victory), originally tropæum, which is a transliteration of the Greek tropaion (monument of an enemy’s defeat) from neut. of adj. tropaios (of defeat) from trope (a rout) originally “a turning” (of the enemy).

 
In modern Greek:

 a) tropeo: trophy [τρόπαιο]

b) trope: change, turn [τροπή]
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From the same root:
English: trope
French: trophee, trope, tropologie
Italian: trofeo, tropo, tropologia
Spanish: trofeo, tropo, tropologia
German: Trophae, Trope
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OED
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Η λέξη trophy (τρόπαιο) προέρχεται από το Λατινικό trophæum (αρχικά tropæum), το οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή του Ελληνικού τρόπαιον.
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Post 132.
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Etymology of turn, tourism, attorney, tornado, torch

Posted by Johannes on 29 September 2009

Origin of turn, tourism, attorney, tornado, torch

The verb turn (to rotate, revolve), comes from the latin tornare (turn on a lathe) from tornus (lathe), which is a transliteration of the Greek tornos (lathe; τόρνος).
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From the same root.

English: turn, turner, torment, torch, tourism, tourist, tour, tourer, attorney, tornado

French: tour, tourisme, touriste, touret, alentour, tourillon, tourner, tournant, tourne, tournee, tornade, tournailler, tournoi, contour

Italian: turno, contorni, turismo, turista, tornare, torno, tornitura, torneocontorno

Spanish: turno, torna, contorno, turismo, turista, torno, tornilla, tornear, tornar, tornada, torneador, tornado, tornillo, torneo, contorno

German: Tour, Tourism, Tourist, turnen, Turnen, Turnplatz, Turnier, Kontur

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In modern Greek:
a) tornos: lathe [τόρνος]
b) tornaro: turn [τόρνάρω]
c) torneftis: turner [τορνευτής]
d) tourismos: tourism (loan from English/French) [τουρισμός]
e) touristas: tourist (loan from English/French)[τουρίστας]
f) tourne: tour (loan from English/French) [τουρ]
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OED

Το ρήμα turn (στρέφω, γυρίζω) προέρχεται από το λατινικό ρήμα tornare από το tornus (τόρνος), το οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή του ελληνικού τόρνος. Από την ίδια ρίζα προέρχονται και τα: tourism (τουρισμός), tour (περιοδία), attorney (δικηγόρος, πληρεξούσιος), tornado (τυφώνας), torch (δάδα).

________________________________ Post 114. ___________________________


Γαλλικά:

tour:περιστροφή, περιοδεία,

tourisme: περιήγηση ,

touriste: τουρίστας, περιηγητής ,

touret: τροχίσκος,

alentour: πέριξ ,

tourillon: στροφεύς,

tourner: περιστρέφω, γυρίζω,

tournant: δίνη, καμπή,

tourne: τορνευτός,

tournee: τουρνέ, περιοδεία,

tornade: τυφών,

tournailler: περιτρίγυρίζω,

tournoi: τουρνουά, αθλητικός αγώνας,

contour: περίβολος

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Etymology of tomb

Posted by Johannes on 29 September 2009

Origin of tomb
Tomb comes from the latin tomba, which derives from the Greek tymbos (tomb, tumulus, grave; τύμβος)

 

From the same root
English: tump
French: tombe, tombal, tombeau, tomber
Italic: tomba, tombare, tombola
Spanish: tumba, tumbal, tumbo, tumbar, tumbado
German: Tumba

In modern Greek:
a) tymbos (or better tymvos): tomb [τύμβος]

OED

Η λέξη tomb (τάφος, μνήμα) προέρχεται από το λατινικό tomba (τάφος, τύμβος), το οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή του ελληνικού τύμβος.

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Etymology of the word “toilet”

Posted by Johannes on 18 September 2009

Origin of the word “toilet”

Toilet comes from the French toilette (a cloth, bag for clothes) from toile (cloth, net). Sense evolution is to “act or process of dressing” and then “a dressing room”. Toile (older: teile) comes from the latin te(xe)la [fabric, cloth, textile] from the latin verb texo, which is related to the Greek verb tefho (fut. tefxo; weave, create, build, construct; τεύχω).
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From the same root:
towel, text, texture, toil
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In modern Greek:
a) architecton: architect [αρχικέκτων]
b) techni: mastery, workmanship, art [τέχνη]
c) technicos: technical [τεχνικός]
δ) tualeta: toilet, bathroom, dress (loan from English/French) [τουαλέτα]
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Η λέξη toilet προέρχεται από το γαλλικό toilette (ρούχο, ένδυμα) από το toile (ρούχο, δίκτυ), το οποίο με τη σειρά του προέρχεται από το λατινικό te(xe)la [ύφασμα, ένδυμα] από το ρήμα texo, το οποίο σχετίζεται με το ελληνικό ρήμα τεύχω (ποιώ, κατασκευάζω, υφαίνω, διαμορφώ, σχηματίζω.
Note: Some etymologize toilet from the unification of the Greek article “to” (the) with the substantive eileon (involucrum, wrapper; είλεον) from the Greek verb eilyo (originally: Felnyo; ειλύω), which means to surround, to encircle, to girdle. From this verb (eilyo) comes also the latin verb volvo (trundle, wheel, roll).
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Etymology of tree

Posted by Johannes on 23 July 2009

Etymology of tree
The word tree is related to the Greek word drys-drees (oak; δρυς). During ancient times oak was the wood that was usually used.

From the same root:
Druid, duration, endure, durable

In modern Greek (Romeika).
a) drees: oak, quercus [δρυς]
b) dreenos: adj oak, oaken [δρύινος]
c) dendro: tree [δένδρο]
d) dore: pike, spear [δόρυ]
e) dreemos: forest [δρυμός]
f) Dreedes: Druid [Δρυίδης]

 

OED

Η λέξη tree σχετίζεται με τή λέξη δρυς. Η δρυς ήταν το ξύλο εκείνο το οποίο χρησιμοποιούνταν κατά κύριο λόγο στην αρχαιότητα.

 
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Etymology of toll

Posted by Johannes on 12 July 2009

Etymology of toll
The word toll (tax, fee) derives from the late Latin tolonium from the Latin telonium (tollhouse), which is a transliteration of the Greek telonion (tollhouse; τελωνείον), from telos (tax, fee, end, aim; τέλος).

From the same root:
tollage, toll- (-house, -booth, -gate)

In modern Greek:
a) telos: toll (τέλος)
b) telonio: customs, custom-house (τελωνείο)
c) teloniakos: customs inspector (τελωνειακός, τελώνης)

Η λέξη toll (τέλος) προέρχεται από το Λατινικό tolonium από το το telonium (τελωνείο), το οποίο αποτελεί μεταγραφή του Ελληνικού τελωνείον από το τέλος.

OED

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